Tag Archives: Hadith

Islam and the World of Sciences

Islam and the Sciences

Muslims’ Contributions to the Advancement of Medical Sciences

The story of Islam would remain incomplete without looking at all that it has brought to the world, both in the past and today, in the fields of the arts, sciences, mathematics and medicine. Arab scholars translated scores of learned works from Greek and Latin into Arabic. In this way the works of such thinkers as Aristotle, Plato and Euclid, among many others, had been preserved. The world’s early physicians, Galen and Hippocrates, were studied by Arab doctors who brought to medical science their own knowledge of drugs and medicines.

It is through these Arabic versions that European scholars first learnt much about the scientific knowledge of the ancient world, In fact, Arabs not only rendered scientific works into Arabic but also made huge contributions to them. Many modern scientific terms, such as chemistry, zero, and rocket, among many others, came from Arabic. What we call Arabic numerals today (1 , 2, 3, and so on), were actually invented in India, but it was Muslim scholars who worked out the full system of decimal calculation and passed it on to Europe.

Islam and MedicineMedical Research

In the field of medicine, Muslim physicians concentrated on the use of drugs and herbs. They knew about the importance of dieting, the climate and mental strain affecting the health of patients. Muslim doctors became experts in treating eye diseases. Muslims also set up public hospitals with highly trained, permanent staff, where young doctors could study and do research.

There are several verses of the Quran in which medical questions of general order are discussed. There are also many sayings of the Prophet (pbuh) dealing with health, sickness, hygiene and problems pertaining to the field of medicine. Diseases such as leprosy, ophthalmia are mentioned. This body of hadeeth on medical questions was systematized by later Muslim scholars and became known as at-Tibb an-Nabawee, or Medicine of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) once said, “There is a remedy for every disease, and when the remedy is applied to the disease it is cured with the permission of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.” (Muslim)

Western Europe trusted the medical knowledge of the Muslim World. In the Middle Ages, France sold a very popular ointment called Blanc de Razes. It was named after a very famous doctor and scholar called ar-Raazee.

Abu Bakr ar-Raazee (known in the West as Razes), who came from near Tehran in Iran, wrote on almost every aspect of medicine. He died in 31 3 AH/925 AD. Ar-Raazee wrote the earliest book we have about infectious diseases in which he set out very clearly the differences between measles and smallpox.

Ar-Raazee also wrote two other books, which had been translated into Latin and became the main textbooks for medical students in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Altogether ar-Raazee had written 1 75 books. Besides his medical works and the books on mathematics and philosophy, he experimented and wrote on chemistry and many other sciences. Among numerous medical works, ar-Raazee’s most important was Al-Haawee (The Comprehensive Book), an enormous medical encyclopedia originally in twenty volumes, of which ten have survived.

Al-Birunee also wrote on a wide variety of scientific subjects. His most important contributions as a scientist were his keen observations of natural phenomena, rather than theories. Sometimes called “the master,” he became one of the best-known Muslim scientists of his time.

The Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) have rendered a very significant contribution in the development of medical sciences. There are tomes of Arabic medical literature lying dormant in museums and libraries which contain ideas and knowledge on every conceivable field of medicine; from bacteriology, surgery, physiology, gynaecology, immunology, psychology, psychiatry and ophthalmology, which are not only valid today but in some cases far in advance of contemporary concepts held in the west.

The Arabs played a vital and dynamic role in medical history. Their discoveries covered such fields as surgery where the principles of suturing (stitches made in sewing up a wound) and wound treatment are still valid today, They were the first to establish hospitals, as we know them today, with separate wards for different diseases.

It is interesting to note that the scientists in Cordova with their seventeen libraries, one of which contained more than four hundred thousand volumes, enjoyed luxurious baths at a time when washing the body was considered a dangerous custom at the University of Oxford. In fact, free inquiry was considered a sin in Europe.

Consequently, great scientists were burnt alive, These include Bruno who believed in the revolution of the earth (a theory of Copernicus), and Galileo for their scientific beliefs. On the other hand, in Baghdad in 1 1 68 AD, there were about sixty well-organized medical institutions and the Mustansiriyyah Medical College, The College had a magnificent building, excellent furniture, a library with rare scientific books and a vast dining hall to serve food to the students, The hospitals had both outdoor and indoor departments. Female nurses served the patients.

Muslim anatomists carried out dissections of human bodies. They held that human skull consisted of eight bones while Galen had thought there were only seven bones.

The scholar Burhaanuddeen wrote in his book Sharf-ul-Asbaab that blood contains sugar. Ar-Raazee discovered a sour matter, acid, in the stomach. In his book Sharh Tashreeh al-Qaanoon, Ibn an-Nafees described pulmonary circulation centuries before the noted English physician William Harvey described the circulation of blood in 1628. His voluminous book on the art of medicine, titled al-Kitaab ash-Shaamil, featured sections on surgical techniques and the obligations of surgeons to their patients.

Ibn Seenaa (best known in the West as Avicenna) explained the digestive system and he discovered that the secretions in the mouth mixed with food and helped its digestion long before this was known in the west. He also excelled in bacteriology: the basis of modern medical science, which is a product of research on germs.

Measles and smallpox were regarded by ar-Raazee as two distinct diseases. He wrote a book on the subject. Muslims in Turkey treated smallpox through vaccination in 1679. The system reached Europe in the eighteenth century through Lady Montague, wife of the British ambassador in Turkey.

Abul-Qasim az-Zakraawee discovered the cause of paralysis due to injury to the spinal cord. Hay fever was first described by Bahaa-ud-Dawlah in 1507, which was discovered by the Europeans centuries later.

Tuberculosis was defined for the first time by Abul Hasan at-Tabaree as an inflammation that not only affects the lungs but also other parts of the body. He was the first physician who acquainted the world with scabies, a skin disease that makes one itch a lot.

Najid-ud-deen as-Samarqandee discovered nephritis, an acute inflammation of the kidneys, which is named for Richard Bright, centuries before he claimed he discovered it. As-Samarqandee also described albumen, which causes the body to swell if it passes through urine.

The skill of surgery reached its zenith with Arab surgeons. Abul Qaasim az-Zahraawee invented many surgical instruments. Anaesthesia was applied by Muslim physicians to keep the patient unconscious as long as seven days while conducting operations, Most highly developed was the surgery of the eye.

According to al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) approved of hijaamah (cupping) treatment, which is a method whereby polluted blood is drained from the body. The Prophet (pbuh), however, advised not to resort to hijaamah (cupping) without proper medical advice.

The list of Muslim contributions to the world of sciences is long and very interesting indeed! You will, inshaa Allaah, learn more about this in the years to come.

Salat-ul Jumaat (The Friday Prayer)

Jumah - The Friday Prayer

The Friday Prayer is an Obligation upon Men

The Friday congregation prayer (Salaat-ul-Jumaat) is compulsory for men, as Almighty Allah says,

“O you who have believed, when (the adhan) is called for the prayer on the day of Jumaat (Friday), then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew.” (Quran, 62:9)

The Prophet (pbuh) also said, “Let some people stop avoiding attending the Friday prayer, or Allah will stamp a seal on their hearts. Then they will become of those who are heedless.” (Muslim)

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Dua (Supplication)

Islam Dua

Making dua is one of the greatest bounties Almighty Allah has given us. Through it we may get anything we desire by sincerely asking Allah for it. Of course, there are certain conditions that need to be fulfilled for dua to be accepted. But dua is an act of worship in itself that is simple, easy and available at anytime we feel like it because Allah is al-Hayy and ol-Qayyoom: always there to listen to our dua and respond to it.

None of us, therefore, should ever despair and say, “I don’t think Allah will answer my supplication”. Rather, we should be hopeful and frequently pray to Him to grant us what we want in this life and in the hereafter.

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AI-Ma’moom: The Person Following the Imam

The Persons Following the Imam  in Salah

If there is only an individual present (one ma’moom), the ma’moom must station himself to the right of the prayer leader (imam); he must not stand behind him or on his left,

If they are a congregation (jamaah), that is to say, if there is more than one ma’moom, they should stand behind the imam. Hence, if the male followers are two or more, they stand behind the imam. If the group is made up of men and women, the men stand behind the imam while the women stand behind the men. If there is only one man and one woman, the man stands beside the imam on his right, while the woman stands behind them.

The ma’moom is not allowed to pray alone behind a row; otherwise, his prayer will not be valid.

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Playing Fair

Playing Fair Islam learn

The expression ‘fair play’ contains so much of meaning in it. To play fair with others is to leave their honour, their reputation, and their property in good state. Some people cause others great harm and grief; for example, because they are so careless in the way they talk about others. They are so careless about truthfulness, so indifferent and insensitive to the rights of others. You would feel sick, for instance, if your reputation were at the mercy of their sharp and uncontrolled tongues. Then again, there are people who refuse to play fair with the property rights of others. They refuse to play fair with their responsibilities and obligations. Your name and your possessions, hard-earned and perhaps badly needed, are not safe with such people. Public funds are not safe with them either.

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Sujod at-Tilaawah – Prostration for Recitation (Part 1)

Learn Quran

The Quran is the Word of Allah

The Glorious Quran is the Word of Allah. It is addressed to us. It is the Book of eternal guidance given to us by the Ever-living Allah. It is as relevant for us today just as it was over fourteen centuries ago and will remain so forever. The Quran is the Speech of Allah – as if Allah were speaking to us through it now and today.

Words of the Prophet (pbuh) about the Quran

Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said, «The superiority of the Speech of Allah over all other speech is like the superiority of Allah over His creation» (At-Tirmidhee and ad-Daarimee)

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Zakat (The Purifying Dues) – Part 1

Zakat - The Purifying Dues

Zakat is the Third Pillar of Islam

Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam. Some people wrongly think that the place of Zakat comes after siyaam (fasting), or even Hajj (the pilgrimage). Zakat is actually the third pillar of Islam that comes immediately after salah. Among the pillars of Islam, Zakat ranks very close to salah. They are often mentioned together in the Quran, as in the following verses:

“Establish regular prayer and give Zakat”

(Quran, 73: 20)

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Salah (The Prayer) – Part 1

Salah (The Prayer)

The Term ‘Salah’

Salah is an Arabic word which lexically means dua, or supplication. Its legal meaning refers to, among other things, the set of recitations and movements such as standing, bowing and prostrating in a certain manner in response to Allah’s command to perform it and seeking to get closer to Him.

The Importance of the Prayer

The prayer is the first deed about which one will be questioned on the Day of Judgment. If one’s prayer is sound and acceptable, then one will certainly achieve eternal success and eternal happiness. However, if one’s prayer is incorrect, incomplete or corrupt in some way, one will not be successful on that day.

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Islam: Meaning of the Five Pillars of Islam

the Five Pillars of Islam

The Word Islam

Islam is an Arabic term which literally means ‘surrender or submission’. The religion sent down by Allah and brought into this world by His Prophets is called al-Islam (Islam, for short). It is called as such for the simple reason that a Muslim surrenders himself completely and unconditionally to the power and will of the Lord of all the worlds. He obeys Him wholeheartedly, and obedience becomes the cardinal principle of his life.

Islam is built on Five Pillars:

Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) once said, “Islam is built upon five [pillars]: ‘Testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing the [obligatory] prayers, giving the zakaat, making the Pilgrimage to the House, and fasting in Ramadhaan”

(al-Bukhaaree and Muslim)

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